View looking N at foundation ruins of steam engine View looking N at foundation ruins of steam engine and cane mill.
View looking E at foundation ruins of steam engine View looking E at foundation ruins of steam engine and cane mill. View of chimney with mill wall ruins in background View of chimney with mill wall ruins in background looking S. View looking N at mill wall ruins with open View looking N at mill wall ruins with open end of purging house in background.
There are limited studies in Puerto Rico that shows the water resources availability and variability with respect to changing climates and land use. The main objective of this study is to set up a physically based spatially distributed hydrological model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool SWAT for the analysis of hydrological processes in the Rio Grande de Manati river basin.
SWAT soil and water assessment tool is a spatially distributed watershed model developed to predict the impact of land management practices on water, sediment and agricultural chemical yields in large complex watersheds. For efficient use of distributed models for hydrological and scenario analysis, it is important that these models pass through a careful calibration and uncertainty analysis. The model evaluation statistics for streamflows prediction shows that there is a good agreement between the measured and simulated flows that was verified by coefficients of determination and Nash Sutcliffe efficiency greater than 0.
View of sugar mill ruins looking N showing chimney View of sugar mill ruins looking N showing chimney at left and masonry base of steam engine and cane mill at right. Detail view of mill wall ruins looking E showing Detail view of mill wall ruins looking E showing arched openings for Jamaican Train and archeological excavations at base of wall.
Local Sluts Comerio PR of partially excavated mill ruins looking NW showing View of partially excavated mill ruins looking NW showing unidentified pit in right foreground, masonry base for steam engine and cane mill in left center, purging house and chimney in background.
View of mill wall ruins looking E showing arched View of mill wall ruins looking E showing arched openings where fuel was fed to fire Jamaican Train. Front view of steam engine and mill, looking NE, Front view of steam engine and mill, looking NE, showing l to r 6-column beam engine, flywheel, reduction gears and 3-roll cane mill.
N of PR Rt. The alluvial aquifer within a acre area of the Rio Grande de Manati alluvial plain was investigated to evaluate its potential as a water-supply source for the Barrios Rio Arriba Saliente and Pugnado Afuera, municipio of ManatiPuerto Rico. Analysis of well boring samples and the of electric resistivity surveys indicate that the average thickness of the unconsolidated alluvial deposits in the study area is about to feet.
The alluvium is a mixture of sand and gravel, which generally has a porosity of 0.
Short-duration pump tests in small-diameter piezometers indicate that the alluvial aquifer has a hydraulic conductivity of about feet per day and a transmissivity of about 7, feet squared per day. Analyses of water levels in piezometers, combined with stage measurements at a series of surveyed reference points along the Rio Grande de Manati channel, indicate that the water-table gradient in the alluvial aquifer is about 0.
The water-table data indicate that the Rio Grande de Manati is the principal source of ground-water recharge to the alluvial aquifer in the study area. Because base flow for the Rio Grande de Manati is usually greater than 44 cubic feet per second, a continuous withdrawal rate of 0.
Chemical analysis of a ground-water sample indicates that the alluvial aquifer water meets U. Environmental Protection Agency secondary standards for selected constituents. Bacteriological analysis of ground-water samples indicates that the ground water contains little or no fecal coliform or fecal streptococcus bacteria.
Although long-term data from upstream of the study area indicate high levels of fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus prior tobacteriological analyses of Rio Grande de Manati water samples obtained during. A two-dimensional computer ground-water model was constructed of the Manati -Vega Baja area to improve the understanding of the unconfined upper aquifer within the North Coast Province of Puerto Rico.
The modeled area covers approximately 79 square miles within the municipios of Manati and Vega Baja and small portions of Vega Alta and Barceloneta. Steady-state two-dimensional ground-water simulations were correlated to conditions prior to construction of the Laguna Tortuguero outlet channel in and calibrated to the observed potentiometric surface in March At the regional scale, the unconfined Upper North Coast Limestone aquifer is a diffuse ground-water flow system through the Aguada and Aymamon limestone units.
The calibrated model input parameters for aquifer recharge varied from 2 inches per year in coastal areas to 18 inches per year Local Sluts Comerio PR the upland areas south of Manati and Vega Baja.
The calibrated transmissivity values ranged from less than feet squared per day in the upland areas near the southern boundary to 70, feet squared per day in the areas west of Vega Baja. Increased ground-water withdrawals from 1.
The most important regional drainage feature is Laguna Tortuguero, which is the major ground-water discharge body for the upper aquifer, and has a drainage area of approximately 17 square miles. The discharge to the sea from Laguna Tortuguero through the outlet channel has been measured on a bi-monthly basis since The outflow represents a combination of ground- and surface-water discharge over the drainage area.
Hydrologic conditions, prior to construction of the Laguna Tortuguero outlet channel incan be considered natural conditions with minimal ground-water pum 1. Healthy Municipios in Latin America. This article describes the Healthy Municipios movement in Latin America and gives examples of some PAHO projects that could become demonstration projects.
The Healthy Municipios movement was established in the early s. The movement aims to promote healthy municipalities according to objectives set forth in the Ottawa Charter on Health Promotion, the Declaration of Bogota, and the Caribbean Health Promotion Charter.
The movement is a t effort of government, the health sector, and the community in promoting health locally. Key features of the movement are its creativity, variety, political strength, and adaptation to local conditions.
Technical cooperation serves the purpose of facilitating information exchange and promotes the use of modern techniques of analysis and scientific and technical information. All projects shared the following common features: initiation by the local community with strong political commitment, intersectoral organizational structure, widespread community mobilization and participation, problem solving activities, and a recognizable leader. It is concluded that these projects and most others aim to assure equity.
These efforts are important for placing health on the political agenda and implementing healthy policies. The Valdivia project, for example, serves a population of aboutin the urban city of Valdivia, the semi-urban area, and rural areas.
Progress was reported in mass communication and school-based programs. Attention was directed also to prevention of risk factors for noncommunicable diseases and to the problem of traffic accidents.
A ground-water level synoptic survey of the limestone aquifer in the Arecibo to Manati area, Puerto Rico, was conducted from November 27 through December 1, by the U. The purpose of the study was to define the spatial distribution of the potentiometric surface of the upper and lower aquifers of the North Coast limestone aquifer system. A potentiometric surface is Local Sluts Comerio PR as an areal representation of the levels to which water would rise in tightly cased wells open to an aquifer Fetter, These potentiometric surface maps can be used by water-resources planners to understand the general direction of ground-water flow and to evaluate ground-water conditions for water supply and resource protection.
The study was conducted during a period of rising ground-water levels resulting from above-normal rainfall during October and Local Sluts Comerio PR when rainfall amount was about 30 percent above normal. The study area encompassed square miles and was bounded to the north by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the southern extension of the limestone units, to the west by the Rio Grande de Arecibo, and to the east by the Rio Grande de Manati pls. Ground water in the upper aquifer of the North Coast Limestone aquifer system historically has been the principal source of public-supply and self-supplied industrial water use in north-central Puerto Rico.
Development of the aquifer for these two major water-use began in about ; however, withdrawals did not become an important water-supply source for sustaining local development until the s. Ground-water withdrawals averaged about 6 million gallons per day from to the mids and peaked at about 33 million gallons per day in the s. Withdrawals have since declined, averaging about Aquifer contamination by industrial chemical spills and by nitrates from agricultural and domestic sources initially reduced pum for Local Sluts Comerio PR use within localized areas, leading eventually to increased withdrawals at unaffected well fields.
The long-term effect of unconstrained ground-water withdrawals has been a regional thinning of the freshwater lens in an area encompassing 50, acres between the Rio Grande de Manati and Rio de la Plata, generally north of latitude 18?
The effects of aquifer overdraft have been documented in the regional thinning of the freshwater lens, with an increase in dissolved-solids concentration in ground-water wells. Dissolved-solids concentration in public-supply Local Sluts Comerio PR were generally between and milligrams per liter during the s, but increased to greater than milligrams per liter in virtually all of the wells by Depletion of fresh ground water was estimated atacre-feet:acre-feet in the Rio Grande de Manati to Rio Cibuco area between andandacre-feet in the Rio Cibuco to Rio de la Plata area between and Thus, aquifer freshwater volume depletion below mean sea level datum may have contributed as much as 38 percent 7.
To enable protocol standardization, sharing, and efficient implementation across laboratory automation platforms, we have further developed the PR-PR open-source high-level biology-friendly robot programming language as a cross-platform laboratory automation system. Beyond liquid-handling robotics, PR-PR now supports microfluidic and microscopy platforms, as well as protocol translation into human languages, such as English.
While the same set of basic PR-PR commands and features are available for each supported platform, the underlying optimization and translation modules vary from platform to platform.
Here, we describe these further developments to PR-PRand demonstrate the experimental implementation and validation of PR-PR protocols for combinatorial modified Goldenmore » Gate DNA assembly across liquid-handling robotic, microfluidic, and manual platforms.
PR-PR : cross-platform laboratory automation system.
Here, we describe these further developments to PR-PRand demonstrate the experimental implementation and validation of PR-PR protocols for combinatorial modified Golden Gate DNA assembly across liquid-handling robotic, microfluidic, and manual platforms.